Give me more… reading and research

For those interested in reading more of the fascinating research and emerging theory on the nature and practice of ELF, here is a shortlist of valuable contributions to the field – our selection is mostly about pronunciation, but we also touch on areas such as discourse and other issues related to sociolinguistic variation, speaker groups and identity.

If you’re looking for more links and resources to quickly familiarise yourself with ELF principles and/or introduce ELF in your classroom, click here.

*Please note – a subscription to a journal/website may be necessary to gain access to some of these publications.  You could also try finding them at the British Library.

Background and general ELF theory

The article marked ‘**’ in the list below is is arguably the first piece of literature you should consult from all of these if you’re not sure where to start, as it offers a clear and succinct review of research into ELF.  The book marked ‘*’ is also a good place to start if you are particularly interested in pronunciation, as Jennifer Jenkins’ name is one of those most closely associated with the development of the field of ELF, and this is the book in which she set out her initial proposals for pronunciation learning and teaching.

Archibald, A., A. Cogo & J. Jenkins (eds.) (2011). Latest trends in ELF research. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

*Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an International Language: New models, new norms, new goals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jenkins, J. (2006). ‘Points of view and blind spots: ELF and SLA’. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 137-162.

Jenkins, J. (2007) English as a Lingua Franca: Attitude and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

**Jenkins, J., A. Cogo & M. Dewey (2011). ‘Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca’. Language Teaching, Vol. 44/3, pp. 281-315.

MacKenzie, I. (2014). English as a Lingua Franca: Theorizing and teaching English. Abingdon: Routledge.

Mauranen, A. & E. Ranta (eds.) (2009). English as a Lingua Franca: studies and findings. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Seidlhofer, B. (2001). ‘Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca’. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 11/2: 133-58.

Seidlhofer, B. (2005). ‘Key concepts in ELT: English as a Lingua Franca’ ELT Journal, Vol. 59/4: 339-341. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD THIS ARTICLE AS A PDF

Seidlhofer, B. (2011) Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pronunciation and listening

These are just a few of the ever-increasing number of articles written on what exactly constitutes intelligible pronunciation (particularly in an ELF context).

Dauer, R. M. (2005). ‘The Lingua Franca Core: A new model for pronunciation instruction?’ TESOL Quarterly, Volume 39, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 543-550.

Field, J. (2005). ‘Intelligibility and the listener: The role of lexical stress’. TESOL Quarterly, Volume 39, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 399-423.

Jenkins, J. (1997). ‘Teaching intonation for English as an international language: teachability, learnability and intelligibility’. Speak Out! The newsletter of the IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group. 21: 15-25.

Jenkins, J. (1998). ‘Which pronunciation norms and models for English as an international language?’ ELT Journal, Vol. 52/2: 119–26.

Jenkins, J. (2005). ‘Implementing an international approach to English pronunciation: The role of teacher attitudes and identity’. TESOL Quarterly, Volume 39, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 535-543.

Levis, J. M. (2005). ‘Changing context and shifting paradigms in pronunciation teaching’. TESOL Quarterly, Volume 39, Number 3, September 2005, pp. 535-543.

Osimk, R. (2010). ‘Testing the intelligibility of ELF sounds’. Speak Out! The newsletter of the IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group, 42: 14-18.

Pickering, L. (2006). ‘Current research on intelligibility in English as a Lingua Franca’. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 26, 219-233.

Applying ELF principles to actual teaching practice

These writers consider how the application of the Lingua Franca Core (LFC) and accommodation strategies might look in specific L1 contexts.  The book marked ‘*’ is perhaps the best book on teaching ELF pronunciation to date, and has provided considerable inspiration for this blog.  Its author, Robin Walker, also has a website here – worth checking out if you’re interested in learning more about his work, particularly in the fields of ELF and pronunciation.

Walker, R. (2001). ‘Pronunciation for international intelligibility’. English Teaching Professional 21.  Retrieved 22 Dec 2011 from http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/internationalintelligibility.html

Walker, R. (2001). ‘Pronunciation priorities, the Lingua Franca Core, and monolingual groups’. Speak Out! The newsletter of the IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group. 18: 4-9.

*Walker, R. (2010). Teaching the pronunciation of English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zoghbor, W. (2009). ‘The implications of the LFC for the Arab context’. Speak Out! The newsletter of the IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group. 41: 25-29.

Pronunciation and ELF in teacher education

These are just a couple of the many articles and books that have been written on these subjects.  Good for a starting point…

Jenkins, J. (1999). ‘Pronunciation in teacher education for English as an International Language’. Speak Out! (IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group Newsletter) 24: 45-48.

Sifakis, N. (2009). ‘The education of the teachers of English as a lingua franca: a transformative perspective’.  International Journal of Applied Linguistics 17/3, pp. 355-375.

Journal/book series and events

If you’d prefer to browse some recent publications, instead of/in addition to our suggestions, check out the recently launched Journal of English as a Lingua Franca (JELF), here.

Speak Out!, the newsletter of IATEFL’s Pronunciation Special Interest Group, also features articles quite often about pronunciation and intelligibility in a variety of contexts.  Here are a few from recent issues:

Andrewes, S. (2013). ‘Pronunciation issues related to David Deterding’s ‘English language teaching and the lingua franca core in East Asia”. Speak Out! (IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group Newsletter) 49: 17-20.

Derwing, T. M. & M. J. Munro (2014). ‘Accent and intelligibility: cracking the conundrum’. Speak Out! (IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group Newsletter) 50: 12-17.

Deterding, D. (2013). ‘English language teaching and the Lingua Franca Core in East Asia’. Speak Out! (IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group Newsletter) 48: 8-11.

Deterding, D. (2014). ‘Consonant cluster simplification and intelligibility’. Speak Out! (IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group Newsletter) 50: 23-27.

There is also an annual conference of English as a Lingua Franca which you might like to attend to get up to speed on recent developments in the field.  Co-founder of this blog, Laura Patsko, presented her research findings in 2013 at ELF6 in Rome and contributed to a colloquium on applications of ELF in ELT [that’s a video link] at ELF7 in Athens in September 2014.

Wider and further reading

The following books and articles are not necessarily specific to ELF, but reading them will fill you in on some of the background to ELF and some wider issues in sociolinguistics and SLA (second language acquisition) which relate to it.

Firth, A. & J. Wagner (1997). ‘On discourse, communication, and (some) fundamental concepts in SLA research’. The Modern Language Journal Vol. 81, Number iii, pp. 285-300.

Phillipson, R. (1992). ‘ELT: the native speaker’s burden?’ ELT Journal, Vol. 46/1, pp. 12-18.

Prodromou, L. (2007). ‘Is ELF a variety of English?’ English Today 90, Vol. 23, Issue 2, pp. 47-53.

Widdowson, H. G. (1994). ‘The ownership of English’. TESOL Quarterly 28/2: 377-89.

Wrembel, M. (2005). ‘An overview of English pronunciation teaching materials. Patterns of change: model accents, goals and priorities’ in K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Przedlacka (eds.): 421-437.

‘The dark side’ – those who disagree with ELF principles, the LFC, etc.

No reading list on the topic of ELF pronunciation would really be complete without acknowledging those who disagree with the concept, at least in part.  The following articles give a flavour of some of the arguments put forward against teaching English for lingua franca purposes, or at least for straying away from long-established native-speaker norms.  (Needless to say, other writers have found fault with some of these arguments, but they’re still worth reading in their original forms.)

Kuo, I-C. (2006). ‘Addressing the issue of teaching English as a lingua franca’. ELT Journal, Vol. 60/3, pp. 213-221.

Sobkowiak, W. (2005). ‘Why not LFC?’ in K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Przedlacka (eds.): 131-149.

Timmis, I. (2002). ‘Native-speaker norms and International English: a classroom view’. ELT Journal, Vol. 56/3, pp. 240-249.

Trudgill, P. (2005). ‘Native-speaker segmental phonological models and the English Lingua Franca Core’ in K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Przedlacka (eds.): 77-98.

Note: Jennifer Jenkins has written several responses to such criticism, highlighting important points in her seminal book ‘The Phonology of English as an International Language’ which some critics seem to have missed, and also clarifying various points in her research and argument that appeared repeatedly misunderstood.  One of the articles she has written to this effect is the following:

Jenkins, J. (2005). ‘Misinterpretation, bias, and resistance to change: the case of the Lingua Franca Core’ in K. Dziubalska-Kołaczyk & J. Przedlacka (eds.): 199-210.

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4 thoughts on “Give me more… reading and research

  1. Pingback: Thank you, Glasgow! | ELF Pronunciation

  2. Hi, I am a PhS student at Babylon university/ Iraq.
    I’d like to have accwsa to some of theae sources. Can you send me some on my email please

    • Hi Hussain, thanks for stopping by.
      The resources which are available online should be accessible by clicking on the links, which are highlighted on the words ‘here’. I’m afraid for the other resources it’s mostly a case of getting them through a library or buying them, as we both accessed these as part of our Masters research at our respective universities in the UK. However, I know that’s easier said than done in some parts of the world.
      Best wishes for the rest of your studies.

  3. Pingback: Thank you, Harrogate! | ELF Pronunciation

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